In 1989, the United States Environmental Protection Agency instituted a sulfite tolerance of 10 μg SO2 per gram in grapes ( Vitis vinifera L.). Accordingly, the residues resulting from repeated weekly SO2 fumigations of table grapes in storage, a typical industry practice, are a concern. In a simulation of commercial practices, grapes (cv. Thompson Seedless) were fumigated once a week with 2000 or 5000 μL SO2per liter of storage volume and aerated 30 minutes while stored at 0°C for at least fourteen consecutive weeks. Each week, grapes were frozen immediately after aeration or stored at 0°C, 10°C, 20°C, or 30°C for 24 hours. The mean SO2 concentration for the treatment with the highest residues was 2.3 μg/g (5000 μL/L dose, seven fumigations). The maximum residue levels at each dose level were observed between the seventh and eleventh weekly fumigations. The influence of post-fumigation temperature on sulfite residue loss was minor and inconsistent. These data suggest that current industry practices leave sulfite residues well below the official legal tolerance.
Grapes are about 80 percent water, making them a delectable low-calorie snack or dessert; a cup of Concord or Catawba grapes contains only about 60 calories Grapes also add fiber to the diet and are naturally low in sodium. Raisins, or dried grapes, contain only about 15 percent water. For this reason, nutrients and calories are more concentrated in raisins-one cup contains 464 calories! Like other dried fruit, raisins are a good source of iron. Serving Size 1-1/2 cups (138g/14.9oz)
Using and Preserving Grapes
- Fresh grapes maintain good quality for two to three days in the refrigerator. Store in a covered container or plastic bag.
- Just before use, wash grape clusters under a gentle spray of water, drain and pat dry.
Table grapes are at their best served slightly chilled to enhance their crisp texture and refreshing flavor.
- Seedless grapes are used whole. For seeded grapes, remove seeds by cutting grapes into halves lengthwise and scooping out seeds with the point of a knife.
- Grapes are easier to peel when they're frozen. Just rinse frozen grapes in lukewarm water until skins split. Skins will then slip right off.
- When preparing small clusters of grapes for garnishing, cut the clusters with scissors. This helps keep the grapes attached to the stem.
Seedless grapes can be canned whole for use in fruit salads and molded gelatin desserts. If seeded varieties are used, halve and remove seeds before canning.
Grape juice can be canned both sweetened and unsweetened. If juice will be made into jelly later, it's best to can it without sugar-then add the proper amount of sugar at jelly making time.
To prevent mold growth, seal grape jelly with two-piece canning lids and process for five minutes in a simmering water bath.
Frozen grape juice is of excellent quality—serve it alone or mixed with other juices. Freeze a few grape "popsicles" for an icy summer treat.
Freeze grape puree for use in making grape pie and to flavor yogurt.
Tray freeze seedless grapes and store them in freezer containers. When summer temperatures sizzle, chill summer drinks with "grape" ice cubes.
For an easy, refreshing summer dessert, serve tray frozen grapes in a chilled glass bowl.
The quality of dried grapes, or raisins, is excellent.
For best results, use seedless grapes. If seeded varieties are used, remove seeds as described under Fresh Facts before drying.
In areas of high humidity, sun drying is not recommended. For best results, dry grapes in a dehydrator or oven.
Make Grapes Part of Your 5 A Day Plan
It is easy to include grapes in your 5 A Day Plan. They're the original fast food so pack them before you leave home in your lunch or as a snack. Add grapes to any meal as a side dish, especially chicken. Eat grapes as a midmorning or midday snack. Freeze grapes and eat straight from the freezer.
Preparation of grape residue feed includes the steps of test tube culture, spreading culture medium, preparation of fermenting agent and preparation of grape residue feed. Screened strain of trichoderma, aspergillus and saccharomycete is prepared into fermenting agent through mutation, culture and small pool fermentation and the nutritive grape residue feed is prepared through fermentation at certain temperature for a certain period and drying in the sun.
Something fun about grapes.
Seedlessness is a highly desirable subjective quality in table grape selection, and seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques.
There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. Numerous seedless cultivars, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of north-eastern United States and southern Ontario. Bright green and elongated or round, the popular Sugraone grape offers a light, sweet flavor and distinctive crunch.
Contrary to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims).
The Grapes of Wrath is a novel published in 1939 and written by John Steinbeck, who was awarded the Pulitzer Prize and the Nobel Prize for Literature. It is frequently read in high school and college literature classes. A celebrated Hollywood film version, starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford, was made in 1940; however, the endings of the book and the movie differ greatly.
Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath at his home, 16250 Greenwood Lane, in what is now Monte Sereno, California. Set during the Great Depression, the novel focuses on a poor family of sharecroppers, the Joads, driven from their home by drought, economic hardship, and changes in the agriculture industry. In a nearly hopeless situation, they set out for California's Central Valley along with thousands of other "Okies" in search of land, jobs, and dignity.
Growing grapes successfully depends on several things. All grapes require full sun, moderate water and some timely care. However, you will have more success if you select and plant a variety that thrives in your climate. There are three basic types of grapes; wine (such as Cabernet or Chardonnay), table (Thompson seedless or Red Flame) and slipskin (Concord). Here's how to grow them:
Step1Select the type of grape you want to plant (wine, table or slipskin), then look for a variety that suits your climate. Ask your local nursery professional which variety of grape does best in your area. Some varieties prefer more or less heat and finding a variety that does well in your location is the key to successful viticulture.
Step2Plant grapes from nursery stock or cuttings in a site located in full sun which is mandatory for good fruit production. The developing fruit requires ample heat. Vines planted in partial shade are susceptible to fungus disease.
Step3Amend the existing soil so that it is loose, fast draining and loamy. Grapes are very deep rooted, so the deeper you amend the soil, the better. Organic compost added to a depth of 24-36 inches is ideal.
Step4Provide a trellis or other type of support for the vines. Some varieties grow rampantly and will need ample support. Trellising also keeps the fruit above the surface of the soil where it is susceptible to rot. Grapes can be trained to grow along a south-facing fence or as espalier along the side of a building. Arbors and traditional grape stakes work very well to keep the fruit off the ground.
Step5Prune grape vines when they are dormant. Fruit is produced on one year old wood, on stems that have formed the previous season. One year wood has smooth bark, older wood has a shaggy appearance. Retain a basic framework and remove long runners to keep plants compact and under control.
Step6Remove long runners mid-season to keep plants under control.